Research Instruments

In my role as a researcher and consultant, I have developed several empirical instruments for measuring incivility and civility in various settings and with various groups. The instruments are described here.

Coming Soon:The revised Incivility in Nursing Education (INE-R) Survey will be available soon. All revisions have been made, however, Dr. Clark and her colleagues are in the process of publishing the results of the psychometric analyses. The manuscript will be submitted for publication early autumn 2014; the INE-R was tested using a large national sample of nursing faculty (182) and nursing students (310). The results from this national study were used to conduct psychometric testing, including a factor analysis. The INE-R is based on the original INE which has been shown to be extremely valid and reliable. The psychometric analysis of the INE-R is also very robust.

Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) Survey

Dr. Clark developed the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey in 2004. Since then it has been used in several empirical studies and has been translated into 10 languages. The INE survey is used to describe student and faculty perceptions of incivility in nursing education. Some of its unique features include:

Incivility in Higher Education (IHE) Survey

The IHE survey was developed by Dr. Clark in 2007. It was adapted from the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, and with the exception of two items, is identical to the INE. It may be used to measure differences in perceptions of academic incivility between and among disciplines in higher education.

For a detailed description and analysis of the INE Survey, or to request permission to use the INE or the IHE Survey, please contact Dr. Clark at

Incivility in Online Learning Environments (IOLE) Survey

The IOLE Survey was developed by Dr. Clark in 2011; it has been used in research studies in online learning environments in nursing schools in the Northwest United States and in the Midwest.  The IOLE measures student and faculty perceptions of incivility in the online learning environment and ways to effectively address the problem. Findings from the current studies will be published in the near future.

Faculty-to-Faculty Incivility Survey (F-F I Survey)

Dr. Clark designed the Faculty-to-Faculty Incivility Survey (F-F I Survey) in 2011 to measure faculty perceptions of and frequency with faculty incivility and ways to address the problem. The F-F I Survey is based on empirical findings from several research studies and includes both quantitative and qualitative items. The F-F I Survey has been used in a national mixed methodological study; findings from the study were published in 2013. Additional empirical studies using the F-F I Survey are underway in the United States and Canada.

Organizational Civility Scale (OCS) Clark and Landrum

According to the Joint Commission, the accrediting agency for health care organizations, health care is a “high-stakes, pressure-packed environment that can test the limits of civility in the workplace.” Rude, disruptive behavior among health care professionals can pose a serious threat to patient safety and the overall quality of care. Therefore, health care organizations must address these problematic behaviors. My colleague, Dr. Eric Landrum and I have developed the Organizational Civility Scale (OCS) in 2009 to measure the extent to which incivility is perceived to be a problem in a variety of health care and business settings to identify the factors which contribute to it, and to generate solutions. If your organization is interested in learning more about the OCS and its use, please contact Dr. Cindy Clark at or Dr. Eric Landrum at

Culture/Climate Assessment Scale

The CCAS is psychometrically reliable instrument that measures the overall culture and climate of academic organizations and includes subscales that assess communication, decision support, conflict, teamwork, and general work satisfaction. It also includes three context items (level of stress, amount of change, and overall morale rating) and 8 open-ended items. The CCAS has been used in several academic organizations and in longitudinal studies in the Boise State University School of Nursing. The results have been useful in helping academic organizations develop strategies for improving the culture and climate. If your organization is interested in learning more about the CCAS and its use, please contact Dr. Pamela Springer at

© Copyright 2009 Civility Matters — Site updated January 2015

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